Siwa oasis in Egypt’s western desert Tourist places in Egypt
The Siwa Oasis is the Western Desert Commission in Egypt, which has witnessed the history of Egypt for thousands of years
Located 300 km south of Marsa Matruh city and classified as the 9 most isolated place on the planet, annually visited by 30 thousand tourists, Egyptian and foreign
Siwa Oasis in Egyptian History
In the year 2900 BC. Some of the people of Libya known as (the people of Alton) attacking Egypt and flew to Egypt and took from the oasis of Siwa center for them King Soenfro attack Wahah and expel the Libyans
In 1970 BC, the Libyan tribes returned once again to take the oasis as a center for attacking Egypt. King Sisostris fought them out of the country and defeated them.
In 1547 BC, the Libyans attacked Egypt once again, exploiting Egypt’s preoccupation with the war in Nuba, but King Amenhotep the First inflicted heavy losses on them.
In 1205 and during the reign of King “Open” to repel the attack of the Libyans by land and sea for the fourth time
After the occupation of the Persians to Egypt, their commander Qambiz sent his army to occupy Siwa, which was the priests of the god Amun in the temple had predicted him by the end of the dead equipped an army of fifty thousand soldiers to demolish the temple of Amun and occupation of the oasis, but this army lost way and perished in the desert and did not reach Siwa and then The incident was fulfilled in the prophecy of the priests in Qambiz, and he died and died
Alexander the Great entered Egypt
After Alexander the Great entered Egypt and established Alexandria, he decided to visit the temple of Amun in Siywa, which gained wide fame after the Qambiz incident. In the winter of 331 BC, Alexander arrived at the temple of Amun in Siywa and was accompanied by the High Priest to the Holy of Holies. And the king did not allow any of his assistants to accompany him and when Alexander emerged from the temple seemed relieved, and refused to disclose what happened inside, and all he said to his friends, “I heard what my heart loves”
Siwa remained independent in its civilization and way of life after the Islamic invasion of Egypt. The leader Musa bin Nusair tried to open it in 708 AD during the Umayyad period as the ruler of North Africa. He moved to it and found a city surrounded by a great fortress with iron gates, but he found it difficult to enter and leave it. It is likely that the entry of the Islamic religion to Siwa was before the end of the first century AH and in 969 seized the Fatimid armies on the oasis.
Muhammad Ali Pasha prepared
In February 1820, Muhammad Ali Pasha prepared a 1300strong battalion led by Hassan Bey Shamashri to open Siwa. Fighting between the forces and the people of the oasis ended with the victory of Mohammed Ali’s forces and their recognition of loyalty to the Egyptian government
In modern times, the armies entered the oasis axis and occupied it on July 20, 1942, and they were removed from it on November 8, 1942, after their breakage in the famous battle of Alamein.
About the Oasis of Siwa and the most important tourist places
Siwa is one of the lowlands of the Western Desert, which formed a green oasis on an area of 1088 km. The city of Siwa is 94263 km². It is located in Matrouh governorate. It is 820 km from Cairo, 65 km from the Libyan border, 300 km west of Marsa Matruh and 600 km west of the Nile valley.
It is bordered to the north by a series of Rocky Mountains, south by a series of sand dunes, enjoying a mild climate throughout the winter
And it is 18 meters below sea level, which makes its groundwater close and easy to use, which is based on the cultivation of palm trees and olive trees, which produce dates and olive oil of the finest in Egypt
The Oasis is located in the middle of the oasis of four salty lakes, Lake AlMu’aser, northeast of the oasis, Lake of Olives, east of the Oasis, Lake Siwa, west of Shali,
There are many abandoned and lowlying oases of Siwa, including Shayta Oasis, 55 km west of Siwa, AlMalfi Oasis 75 km northwest of Siwa, AlLuraj Oasis, Nuwamsa Oasis,
Siwa prevails in the desert continental climate. It is very hot in summer, but its winter is very hot during the night. The most dangerous thing to face Siwa is floods.
Residents of Siwa Oasis
It is inhabited by tribes of Amazigh origin the sons of Moses, Aghurmi, the spies, the sharmatah, the Sarhanah, the Maraqi, the Shehaim, the small mother, And be the largest and the best and the good character, and often be the legacy of inheritance, but the families of the tribe are members of the Council and require that they enjoy the good biography
Most of the studies refer to the Amazigh origin of the population. The Amazighs entered Egypt in the late Pharaonic era and formed their families. The ancient Egyptians called them “Mashoucheh”. They ruled Egypt by their leader, “Chishonak I”. They fell in Siwa Oasis and maintained their customs, traditions and language.
Language of the population The Siwis speak the Tasweet language, which is separated from the Amazigh language or the Berber language, which is attributed to Ham Bin Noah. Each child in Siwa speaks by birth and then learns the Arabic language during the study stages, in addition to the modern Egyptian language.
Natural and tourist places in Siwa Oasis
Despite the occurrence of “Siwa” in the middle of the desert, but the fresh water spread in the back in the form of a large number of wells and eyes, up to 200 eyes from which flows daily 190 thousand cubic meters of water
Used for irrigation, drinking, natural water filling and treatment, and the amount of water varies from one well to another, and sometimes combine in one area, including hot and cold and sweet and salty in addition to sulfur eyes, and those eyes
Ein Takhoush, Ein Shrouf, Ein Ahed, Ain Khamisa, Ain alJerba, Ain alShifa, Ain Mashandat, and the most famous are
Ain Kilopatra is one of Siwa’s most famous tourist attractions. It is also known as Ain Juba or Ain Shams. It is a stone bath filled with natural hot spring water. Some claim to have been named after the Egyptian queen who swam during her visit to Siwa. Some deny that this visit took place from the ground up.
Ain Fattanas It is about 6 km west of Siwa and is located on the island of Patanas overlooking the salt lake and surrounded by palm trees and desert landscapes.
One eye also called the “Great Sand Sea Well”, a hot sulfur spring 10 km from the oasis near the Libyan border in the heart of the Great Sand Sea.
Ein Kigar The eyes of the water used for the therapeutic purposes of rheumatic psoriasis are common, and Ain Kigar is the most famous, with a temperature of 67 C and containing several mineral and sulfuric elements
Saltwater Lakes in Siwa Oasis
It has an area of 960 feddans, Lake Siwa west of Shali, an area of 3600 feddans, and Lake AlMaraki west of the oasis in Bahi alDin area of 700 acres.
The lake consists of several lakes, including Lake Taghagine, Lake of the Middle and Lake Chayta. Lake Watanas is a tourist attraction located 5 km west of Siwa, with the island of Watanas surrounded by the lake from three directions.
Siwa Oasis Reserve
The area of the protected area is 7800 km. It is divided into 3 sectors the eastern sector, the area is about 6000 km, the western sector is about 1700 km, the southern central sector is about 100 km
The region is classified as a natural reserve with its rich biodiversity and natural and cultural heritage. Many mammals, reptiles, birds, invertebrates and insects, including endangered gazelles, Phoenician fox, Chitta and endangered cats, meet common species of birds such as pigeons Migratory birds, as well as flora
Mountain of the Dead in Siwa
Is a mountain that includes a collection of archaeological tombs dating back to the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, which were reused during the GrecoRoman Period. The mountain is about 2 km from Siwa, and the graves were discovered as a result of the people fleeing Siwa to the mountain during World War II raids such as
The tomb of the priest of the god Osiris, was awarded the title of the great in the city of the just and rectified and the tomb carving of the tribute to the god of Thoth, in addition to a landscape of religious ritual known as the four bulls.
Cemon’s Cemetery It is one of the most important tombs of Western Sahara, where a large number of mummies were found inside. The importance of the cemetery is to clarify the mating between ancient Egyptian art and Greek art. Among the most important paintings in the cemetery is the view of the court hall of Osiris,
Cemetery of the Crocodile It is one of the most important archaeological tombs carved in Mount Motti discovered in 1940, and known by this name due to the disappearance of the name of the owner of the cemetery and the admiration of the people of Siwa crocodile view located in the cemetery is full of graves cemetery scenes of the dead, and other views of the graveyard worship of some gods, Three goddesses holding knives to protect the mummy.
The tomb of Miso Isis is an archaeological cemetery in the area. It contains a text that describes the god Osiris in the name of the great god in That. Archaeologists are likely to be That, the ancient name of Siwa.
Amoun archaeological temple in Siwa Egypt
The temple of Amun, also known as the Temple of Revelation, the Temple of Predictions, or the Temple of Alexander, is one of the most important monuments in the Siwa oasis. It was established in the Pharaonic era to spread the Amun religion among the tribes and neighboring peoples due to the location of Siwa as a forum for trade routes between the south, north, west and east. The temple is located 4 km east of the city of Siwa, and was famous for visiting the Macedonian leader Alexander the Great after opening Egypt in 331 BC.
The temple witnesses an astronomical phenomenon called the spring equinox where the solar disk perpendicular to the temple twice a year, on March 20 or 21, the date of the spring equinox, and September 22 or 23, the date of autumnal equinox. The phenomenon observes the only day of the year, Of the shortest day of the year, and 90 days later, the longest day of the year.
Temple of Umm Obaidah in Siwa Egypt
The Um Ubaida temple is the temple of Amun II in alWaha and is located near the Temple of Revelation, built by the Egyptian pharaoh Nectanobo II or Nakhtanpo II of the 30th Dynasty, and features a pharaoh as he kneels to the god Amun. There are different accounts of how the temple was destroyed. Some of them indicate that an earthquake in 1881 caused the destruction of the temple. Others say that the temple was blown up in 1897 by Siwa Mahmoud Azmi, who was transferred to Siwa after the Arab revolution for sympathy.
Castle Shali in the Oasis of Siwa Egypt
The city of Shali dates back to 1203, and its name means the city in the Siwa. The city had only one door for the purpose of reassuring its defenses, called “Anshal” meaning the door of the city, and on the northern side of the wall of the city is the old mosque, and the opening of the city a second door on the south called “Atrat”
And was used for those who prefer to avoid traffic in front of the men who are heads of families, did not know the place of this section only the people of Siwa, they were using it secretly to exit or enter into a state of siege of the city
Because the Siwa customs prevent the women from leaving except in the narrowest and without mixing with men, a third door was opened called “Kadouha”. Women were only allowed to use this door when they were leaving.
In the construction of the city’s houses, the clay crater was extracted from the soil saturated with salt, because when it dries it becomes cementlike in its hardness. In 1820, the forces of Muhammad Ali Pasha opened Siwa and subjected them to the authority of the government. The city was protected and protected. In 1826, the Council of Legions allowed the residents to build their houses outside the city walls.
In 1926, a large number of the city’s houses collapsed and the rest of them were torn down by heavy rain. The inhabitants of Shali fled and built new houses on the roof of the mountain.
Oasis of Siwa Egypt 4920 year old paradise witness to history